AskDefine | Define fibrin

Dictionary Definition

fibrin n : a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

fibrin
  1. A white, albuminous, fibrous substance, formed in the coagulation of the blood .
2. An elastic, insoluble, whitish protein Produced by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen and foming an interlacing fibrous network in the coagulation of blood.

Translations

Extensive Definition

Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. It is a fibrillar protein that is polymerised to form a "mesh" that forms a hemostatic plug or clot (in conjunction with platelets) over a wound site.
Fibrin is made from its zymogen fibrinogen, a soluble plasma glycoprotein that is synthesised by the liver. Processes in the coagulation cascade activate the zymogen prothrombin to the serine protease thrombin, which is responsible for converting fibrinogen into fibrin. Fibrin is then cross linked by factor XIII to form a clot. Recent research has shown that fibrin plays a key role in the inflammatory response and development of rheumatoid arthritis.

Physiology

Fibrinogen (also called factor I) is a 340 kDa glycoprotein synthesised in the liver by hepatocytes and megakaryocytes. The concentration in blood plasma is 1.5 - 4.0 g/L (normally measured using the Clauss method) or about 7 µM. In its natural form, fibrinogen can form bridges between platelets, by binding to their GpIIb/IIIa surface membrane proteins; however its major function is as the precursor to fibrin.
Fibrinogen, the principal protein of vertebrate blood clotting, is an hexamer containing two sets of three different chains (α, β, and γ), linked to each other by disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sections of these three chains are evolutionary related and contain the cysteines that participate in the cross-linking of the chains. However, there is no similarity between the C-terminal part of the α chain and that of the β and γ chains. The C-terminal part of the β and γ chains forms a domain of about 270 amino-acid residues. This domain contains four conserved cysteines involved in two disulfide bonds. On the alpha and beta chains, there is a small peptide sequence (called a fibrinopeptide). It is these small peptides that prevent fibrinogen spontaneously forming polymers with itself.

Role in disease

Excessive generation of fibrin due to activation of the coagulation cascade leads to thrombosis, while ineffective generation predisposes to hemorrhage.
Dysfunction or disease of the liver can lead to a decrease in fibrinogen production or the production of abnormal fibrinogen molecules with reduced activity (dysfibrinogenaemia). Hereditary abnormalities of fibrinogen (the gene is carried on chromosome 4) are of both quantitative and qualitative in nature and include; afibrinogenaemia, hypofibrinogenaemia, dysfibrinogenaemia, and hypodysfibrinogenaemia.

Diagnostic use

Fibrinogen levels can be measured in venous blood. Normal levels are about 150-300 mg/dL. Higher levels are, amongst others, associated with cardiovascular disease (>460 mg/dL). It may be elevated in any form of inflammation, as it is an acute phase protein.
It is used in veterinary medicine as an inflammatory marker: in horses a level above the normal range of 1.0-4.0 g/L suggests some degree of systemic inflammatory response.
Low levels of fibrinogen can indicate a systemic activation of the clotting system, with consumption of clotting factors faster than synthesis. This excessive clotting factor consumption condition is known as Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation or "DIC." DIC can be difficult to diagnose, but a strong clue is low fibrinogen levels in the setting of prolonged clotting times (PT or PTT), in the context of acute critical illness such as sepsis or trauma.

See also

External links

  • Defibrinated blood harvested from sheep video
fibrin in Arabic: فيبرينوجين
fibrin in Bulgarian: Фибрин
fibrin in German: Fibrin
fibrin in Spanish: Fibrina
fibrin in French: Fibrine
fibrin in Galician: Fibrina
fibrin in Italian: Fibrina
fibrin in Hebrew: פיברין
fibrin in Lithuanian: Fibrinas
fibrin in Dutch: Fibrine
fibrin in Japanese: フィブリン
fibrin in Oromo: Fibrin
fibrin in Low German: Fibrin
fibrin in Polish: Fibryna
fibrin in Portuguese: Fibrina
fibrin in Russian: Фибрин
fibrin in Slovenian: Fibrin
fibrin in Swedish: Fibrin
fibrin in Ukrainian: Фібрин
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